Medical Sources

IBS and low-FODMAP

  1. Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25(2):252-258. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06149.x
  2. Halmos EP, Power VA, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG. A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2014;146(1):67-75.e5. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.09.046
  3. Huaman J-W, Mego M, Manichanh C, et al. Effects of Prebiotics vs a Diet Low in FODMAPs in Patients With Functional Gut Disorders. Gastroenterology. 2018;155(4):1004-1007. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2018.06.045
  4. Ireton-Jones C. The low FODMAP diet: fundamental therapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(5):414-419. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000398
  5. Nawawi KNM, Belov M, Goulding C. Low FODMAP diet significantly improves IBS symptoms: an Irish retrospective cohort study. Eur J Nutr. Published online September 13, 2019. doi:10.1007/s00394-019-02074-6
  6. Su H, Li Y-T, Heitkemper MM, Zia J. Effects of Low-FODMAPS Diet on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and Gut Microbiome. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2019;42(2):150-158. doi:10.1097/SGA.0000000000000428
  7. Weynants A, Goossens L, Genetello M, De Looze D, Van Winckel M. The long-term effect and adherence of a low fermentable oligosaccharides disaccharides monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. Published online October 22, 2019. doi:10.1111/jhn.12706
  8. Dionne J, Ford AC, Yuan Y, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Evaluating the Efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet and a Low FODMAPs Diet in Treating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;113(9):1290-1300. doi:10.1038/s41395-018-0195-4
  9. Schumann D, Klose P, Lauche R, Dobos G, Langhorst J, Cramer H. Low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol diet in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition. 2018;45:24-31. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2017.07.004
  10. Altobelli E, Del Negro V, Angeletti PM, Latella G. Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(9). doi:10.3390/nu9090940
  11. Varjú P, Farkas N, Hegyi P, et al. Low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet improves symptoms in adults suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) compared to standard IBS diet: A meta-analysis of clinical studies. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182942. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182942
  12. Marsh A, Eslick EM, Eslick GD. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(3):897-906. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0922-1
  13. Rao SSC, Yu S, Fedewa A. Systematic review: dietary fibre and FODMAP-restricted diet in the management of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;41(12):1256-1270. doi:10.1111/apt.13167
  14. Paduano D, Cingolani A, Tanda E, Usai P. Effect of Three Diets (Low-FODMAP, Gluten-free and Balanced) on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life. Nutrients. 2019;11(7). doi:10.3390/nu11071566
  15. Zahedi MJ, Behrouz V, Azimi M. Low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet versus general dietary advice in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;33(6):1192-1199. doi:10.1111/jgh.14051
  16. Laatikainen R, Koskenpato J, Hongisto S-M, et al. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Nutrients. 2017;9(11). doi:10.3390/nu9111215
  17. Schumann D, Langhorst J, Dobos G, Cramer H. Randomised clinical trial: yoga vs a low-FODMAP diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;47(2):203-211. doi:10.1111/apt.14400
  18. Harvie RM, Chisholm AW, Bisanz JE, et al. Long-term irritable bowel syndrome symptom control with reintroduction of selected FODMAPs. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(25):4632-4643. doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i25.4632
  19. Eswaran S, Chey WD, Jackson K, Pillai S, Chey SW, Han-Markey T. A Diet Low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Improves Quality of Life and Reduces Activity Impairment in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Diarrhea. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15(12):1890-1899.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.044
  20. Staudacher HM, Lomer MCE, Farquharson FM, et al. A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and A Probiotic Restores Bifidobacterium Species: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(4):936-947. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.010
  21. Kortlever TL, Ten Bokkel Huinink S, Offereins M, et al. Low-FODMAP Diet Is Associated With Improved Quality of Life in IBS Patients-A Prospective Observational Study. Nutr Clin Pract. 2019;34(4):623-630. doi:10.1002/ncp.10233
  22. Pourmand H, Esmaillzadeh A. Consumption of a Low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, and Polyols Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Int J Prev Med. 2017;8:104. doi:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM17517
  23. Eswaran SL, Chey WD, Han-Markey T, Ball S, Jackson K. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111(12):1824-1832. doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.434
  24. Ahmad OF, Akbar A. Dietary treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. British Medical Bulletin. 2015;113(1):83-90. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldu039
  25. Shepherd SJ, Halmos E, Glance S. The role of FODMAPs in irritable bowel syndrome: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2014;17(6):605-609. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000116
  26. Altobelli E, Del Negro V, Angeletti P, Latella G. Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(9):940. doi:10.3390/nu9090940
  27. Marsh A, Eslick EM, Eslick GD. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(3):897-906. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0922-1

IBS and hypnotherapy

  1. Lindfors P, Unge P, Nyhlin H, et al. Long-term effects of hypnotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012;47(4):414-420. doi:10.3109/00365521.2012.658858
  2. Peters SL, Muir JG, Gibson PR. Review article: gut-directed hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;41(11):1104-1115. doi:10.1111/apt.13202
  3. Dobbin A, Dobbin J, Ross SC, Graham C, Ford MJ. Randomised controlled trial of brief intervention with biofeedback and hypnotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2013;43(1):15-23. doi:10.4997/JRCPE.2013.104
  4. Ford AC, Lacy BE, Harris LA, Quigley EMM, Moayyedi P. Effect of Antidepressants and Psychological Therapies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019;114(1):21-39. doi:10.1038/s41395-018-0222-5
  5. Lindfors P, Unge P, Arvidsson P, et al. Effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy on IBS in different clinical settings-results from two randomized, controlled trials. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(2):276-285. doi:10.1038/ajg.2011.340
  6. Lowén MBO, Mayer EA, Sjöberg M, et al. Effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain response to visceral stimulus in the irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;37(12):1184-1197. doi:10.1111/apt.12319
  7. Phillips-Moore JS, Talley NJ, Jones MP. The mind-body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment. Health Psychol Open. 2015;2(1):2055102914564583. doi:10.1177/2055102914564583
  8. Webb AN, Kukuruzovic RH, Catto-Smith AG, Sawyer SM. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD005110. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005110.pub2
  9. Gerson CD, Gerson J, Gerson M-J. Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2013;61(1):38-54. doi:10.1080/00207144.2012.700620
  10. Hasan SS, Pearson JS, Morris J, Whorwell PJ. SKYPE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: Effectiveness and Comparison with Face-to-Face Treatment. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2019;67(1):69-80. doi:10.1080/00207144.2019.1553766
  11. Peter J, Tran US, Michalski M, Moser G. The structure of resilience in irritable bowel syndrome and its improvement through hypnotherapy: Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal data. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(11):e0202538. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0202538
  12. Wilson S, Maddison T, Roberts L, Greenfield S, Singh S, Birmingham IBS Research Group. Systematic review: the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(5):769-780. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03028.x
  13. Golden WL. Cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced agoraphobia. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007;55(2):131-146. doi:10.1080/00207140601177889
  14. Krouwel M, Jolly K, Greenfield S. How do people with refractory irritable bowel syndrome perceive hypnotherapy?: Qualitative study. Complement Ther Med. 2019;45:65-70. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.05.020
  15. Rutten JMTM, Reitsma JB, Vlieger AM, Benninga MA. Gut-directed hypnotherapy for functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome in children: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98(4):252-257. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-302906
  16. Flik CE, Laan W, Zuithoff NPA, et al. Efficacy of individual and group hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IMAGINE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(1):20-31. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30310-8
  17. Lee HH, Choi YY, Choi M-G. The Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;20(2):152-162. doi:10.5056/jnm.2014.20.2.152
  18. Shahbazi K, Solati K, Hasanpour-Dehkordi A. Comparison of Hypnotherapy and Standard Medical Treatment Alone on Quality of Life in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Control Trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(5):OC01-04. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/17631.7713
  19. Lindfors P, Ljótsson B, Bjornsson E, Abrahamsson H, Simrén M. Patient satisfaction after gut-directed hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(2):169-e86. doi:10.1111/nmo.12022
  20. Lövdahl J, Ringström G, Agerforz P, Törnblom H, Simrén M. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(1):100-114. doi:10.1080/00029157.2015.1030492
  21. Miller V, Carruthers HR, Morris J, Hasan SS, Archbold S, Whorwell PJ. Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: an audit of one thousand adult patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;41(9):844-855. doi:10.1111/apt.13145
  22. Palsson OS. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(2):134-158. doi:10.1080/00029157.2015.1039114
  23. Ford AC, Quigley EMM, Lacy BE, et al. Effect of antidepressants and psychological therapies, including hypnotherapy, in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(9):1350-1365; quiz 1366. doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.148
  24. Peter J, Fournier C, Keip B, et al. Intestinal Microbiome in Irritable Bowel Syndrome before and after Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(11). doi:10.3390/ijms19113619
  25. Peters SL, Yao CK, Philpott H, Yelland GW, Muir JG, Gibson PR. Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy of gut-directed hypnotherapy is similar to that of the low FODMAP diet for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;44(5):447-459. doi:10.1111/apt.13706
  26. Slomski A. Hypnotherapy Provides IBS Relief. JAMA. 2019;321(4):335. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.22028
  27. Moser G, Trägner S, Gajowniczek EE, et al. Long-term success of GUT-directed group hypnosis for patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(4):602-609. doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.19

IBS and CBT

  1. Lackner JM, Jaccard J, Keefer L, et al. Improvement in Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Refractory Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2018;155(1):47-57. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2018.03.063
  2. Lackner JM, Jaccard J, Radziwon CD, et al. Durability and Decay of Treatment Benefit of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: 12-Month Follow-Up. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019;114(2):330-338. doi:10.1038/s41395-018-0396-x
  3. Toivonen KI, Zernicke K, Carlson LE. Web-Based Mindfulness Interventions for People With Physical Health Conditions: Systematic Review. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(8):e303. doi:10.2196/jmir.7487
  4. Zomorodi S, Abdi S, Tabatabaee SKR. Comparison of long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus mindfulness-based therapy on reduction of symptoms among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2014;7(2):118-124.
  5. Jang AL, Hwang S-K, Kim DU. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in female nursing students with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;26(8):918-926. doi:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000140
  6. Laird KT, Tanner-Smith EE, Russell AC, Hollon SD, Walker LS. Comparative efficacy of psychological therapies for improving mental health and daily functioning in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017;51:142-152. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.11.001
  7. Flik CE, Bakker L, Laan W, van Rood YR, Smout AJPM, de Wit NJ. Systematic review: The placebo effect of psychological interventions in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(12):2223-2233. doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i12.2223
  8. Kawanishi H, Sekiguchi A, Funaba M, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy with interoceptive exposure and complementary video materials for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Japan. Biopsychosoc Med. 2019;13:14. doi:10.1186/s13030-019-0155-2
  9. Sebastián Sánchez B, Gil Roales-Nieto J, Ferreira NB, Gil Luciano B, Sebastián Domingo JJ. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2017;109(9):648-657. doi:10.17235/reed.2017.4660/2016
  10. Dehkordi AH, Solati K. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy and drug therapy on quality of life and symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2017;8(2):67-72. doi:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR17016
  11. Windgassen S, Moss-Morris R, Chilcot J, Sibelli A, Goldsmith K, Chalder T. The journey between brain and gut: A systematic review of psychological mechanisms of treatment effect in irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Health Psychol. 2017;22(4):701-736. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12250
  12. Edebol-Carlman H, Ljótsson B, Linton SJ, et al. Face-to-Face Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Effects on Gastrointestinal and Psychiatric Symptoms. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2017;2017:8915872. doi:10.1155/2017/8915872
  13. Li L, Xiong L, Zhang S, Yu Q, Chen M. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2014;77(1):1-12. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.03.006
  14. Lackner JM, Jaccard J, Krasner SS, Katz LA, Gudleski GD, Holroyd K. Self-administered cognitive behavior therapy for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome: clinical efficacy, tolerability, feasibility. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6(8):899-906. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2008.03.004
  15. Tang Q-L, Lin G-Y, Zhang M-Q. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(46):8605-8610. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i46.8605
  16. Kinsinger SW. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome: current insights. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:231-237. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S120817
  17. Radziwon CD, Lackner JM. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for IBS: How Useful, How Often, and How Does It Work? Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2017;19(10):49. doi:10.1007/s11894-017-0590-9
  18. Drossman DA, Toner BB, Whitehead WE, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus education and desipramine versus placebo for moderate to severe functional bowel disorders 1 1This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (trial registry no. NCT00006157). Gastroenterology. 2003;125(1):19-31. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00669-3
  19. Black CJ, Thakur ER, Houghton LA, Quigley EMM, Moayyedi P, Ford AC. Efficacy of psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and network meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 10]. Gut. 2020;gutjnl-2020-321191. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321191

Web-based self-management programs for IBS

  1. Bonnert M, Olén O, Lalouni M, et al. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adolescents With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(1):152-162. doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.503
  2. Ljótsson B, Falk L, Vesterlund AW, et al. Internet-delivered exposure and mindfulness based therapy for irritable bowel syndrome--a randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48(6):531-539. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.03.003
  3. Lackner JM, Keefer L, Jaccard J, et al. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012;33(6):1293-1310. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.07.013
  4. Ljótsson B, Hedman E, Lindfors P, et al. Long-term follow-up of internet-delivered exposure and mindfulness based treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49(1):58-61. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.10.006
  5. Dorn SD, Palsson OS, Woldeghebriel M, et al. Development and pilot testing of an integrated, web-based self-management program for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(1):128-134. doi:10.1111/nmo.12487
  6. Everitt HA, Moss-Morris RE, Sibelli A, et al. Management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care: feasibility randomised controlled trial of mebeverine, methylcellulose, placebo and a patient self-management cognitive behavioural therapy website. (MIBS trial). BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:136. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-136
  7. Everitt HA, Landau S, O’Reilly G, et al. Assessing telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and web-delivered CBT versus treatment as usual in irritable bowel syndrome (ACTIB): a multicentre randomised trial. Gut. 2019;68(9):1613-1623. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317805
  8. Everitt HA, Landau S, O’Reilly G, et al. Cognitive behavioural therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: 24-month follow-up of participants in the ACTIB randomised trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(11):863-872. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30243-2
  9. Ankersen DV, Carlsen K, Marker D, Munkholm P, Burisch J. Using eHealth strategies in delivering dietary and other therapies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32 Suppl 1:27-31. doi:10.1111/jgh.13691
  10. Pedersen N. EHealth: self-management in inflammatory bowel disease and in irritable bowel syndrome using novel constant-care web applications. EHealth by constant-care in IBD and IBS. Dan Med J. 2015;62(12):B5168.
  11. Cong X, Perry M, Bernier KM, Young EE, Starkweather A. Effects of Self-Management Interventions in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Systematic Review. West J Nurs Res. 2018;40(11):1698-1720. doi:10.1177/0193945917727705
  12. Liegl G, Plessen CY, Leitner A, Boeckle M, Pieh C. Guided self-help interventions for irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;27(10):1209-1221. doi:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000428
  13. Ankersen DV, Weimers P, Burisch J. Whats “App-ening”: the help of new technologies in nutrition in digestive diseases. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(5):426-431. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000399
  14. Pedersen N, Vegh Z, Burisch J, et al. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(21):6680-6684. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i21.6680
  15. Hunt MG, Moshier S, Milonova M. Brief cognitive-behavioral internet therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. Behav Res Ther. 2009;47(9):797-802. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.05.002
  16. Lee T-Y, Hsieh T-C, Sung H-C, Chen W-L. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Young Taiwanese Female Nursing Students with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(5). doi:10.3390/ijerph16050708
  17. Lalouni M, Ljótsson B, Bonnert M, et al. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children With Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Feasibility Study. JMIR Ment Health. 2017;4(3):e32. doi:10.2196/mental.7985
  18. Tonkin-Crine S, Bishop FL, Ellis M, Moss-Morris R, Everitt H. Exploring patients’ views of a cognitive behavioral therapy-based website for the self-management of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(9):e190. doi:10.2196/jmir.2672
  19. Andersson E, Ljótsson B, Smit F, et al. Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: results from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:215. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-215
  20. Ljótsson B, Hedman E, Andersson E, et al. Internet-delivered exposure-based treatment vs. stress management for irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(8):1481-1491. doi:10.1038/ajg.2011.139
  21. Hanlon I, Hewitt C, Bell K, Phillips A, Mikocka-Walus A. Systematic review with meta-analysis: online psychological interventions for mental and physical health outcomes in gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;48(3):244‐259. doi:10.1111/apt.14840
  22. Everitt H, Landau S, Little P, et al. Therapist telephone-delivered CBT and web-based CBT compared with treatment as usual in refractory irritable bowel syndrome: the ACTIB three-arm RCT. Health Technol Assess. 2019;23(17):1‐154. doi:10.3310/hta23170
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